DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON DIVINE REVELATION - (DEI VERBUM)
SERVANT OF THE SERVANTS OF GOD
TOGETHER WITH THE FATHERS OF THE SACRED COUNCIL
FOR EVERLASTING MEMORY
DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON DIVINE REVELATION
1. Hearing the Word of God with reverence and proclaiming it with
faith, the sacred Synod takes its direction from these words of St
John: "We announce to you the eternal life which dwelt with the
Father and was made visible to us. What we have seen and heard we
announce to you, so that you may have fellowship with us and our
common fellowship be with the Father and His Son Jesus Christ" (1
John 1:2-3). Therefore, following in the footsteps of the Council of
Trent and of the First Vatican Council, this present Council wishes
to set forth authentic doctrine on divine revelation and how it is
handed on, so that by hearing the message of salvation the whole
world may believe, by believing it may hope, and by hoping it may
CHAPTER I - REVELATION ITSELF
2. In His goodness and wisdom God chose to reveal Himself and to
make known to us the hidden purpose of His will (see Eph. 1:9) by
which through Christ, the Word made flesh, man might in the Holy
Spirit have access to the Father and come to share in the divine
nature (see Eph. 2:18; 2 Peter 1:4). Through this revelation,
therefore, the invisible God (see Col. 1:15; 1 Tim. 1:17) out of the
abundance of His love speaks to men as friends (see Ex. 33:11; John
15:14-15) and lives among them (see Bar. 3:38), so that He may
invite and take them into fellowship with Himself. This plan of
revelation is realized by deeds and words having an inner unity: the
deeds wrought by God in the history of salvation manifest and
confirm the teaching and realities signified by the words, while the
words proclaim the deeds and clarify the mystery contained in them.
By this revelation then, the deepest truth about God and the
salvation of man shines out for our sake in Christ, who is both the
mediator and the fullness of all revelation .
3. God, who through the Word creates all things (see John 1:3) and
keeps them in existence, gives men an enduring witness to Himself in
created realities (see Rom. 1:19-20). Planning to make known the way
of heavenly salvation, He went further and from the start manifested
Himself to our first parents. Then after their fall His promise of
redemption aroused in them the hope of being saved (see Gen. 3:15)
and from that time on He ceaselessly kept the human race in His
care, to give eternal life to those who perseveringly do good in
search of salvation (see Rom. 2:6-7). Then, at the time He had
appointed He called Abraham in order make of him a great nation (see
Gen. 12:2). Through the patriarchs, and after them through Moses and
the prophets, He taught this people to acknowledge Himself the one
living and true God, provident father and just judge, and to wait
for the Saviour promised by Him, and in this manner prepared the way
for the Gospel down through the centuries.
4. Then, after speaking in many and varied ways through the
prophets, "now at last in these days God has spoken to us in His
Son" (Heb. 1:1- 2). For He sent His Son, the eternal Word, who
enlightens all men, so that He might dwell among men and tell them
of the innermost being of God (see John 1:1-18). Jesus Christ,
therefore, the Word made flesh, was sent as "a man to men" . He
"speaks the words of God" (John 3:34), and completes the work of
salvation which His Father gave to Him to do (see John 5:36, 17:4).
To see Jesus is to see His Father (see John 14:9). For this reason
Jesus perfected revelation by fulfilling it through his whole work
of making Himself present and manifesting Himself: through His words
and deeds, His signs and wonders, but especially through His death
and glorious resurrection from the dead and final sending of the
Spirit of truth. Moreover He confirmed with divine testimony what
revelation proclaimed, that God is with us to free us from the
darkness of sin and death, and to raise us up to life eternal.
The Christian dispensation, therefore, as the new and definitive
covenant, will never pass away and we now await no further new
public revelation before the glorious manifestation of our Lord
Jesus Christ (see 1 Tim. 6:14 and Tit. 2:13).
5. "The obedience of faith" (Rom. 16:26; see Rom. 1:5; 2 Cor.
10:5-6) "is to be given to God who reveals, an obedience by which
man commits his whole self freely to God, offering the full
submission of intellect and will to God who reveals" , and freely
assenting to the truth revealed by Him. TO make this act of faith,
the grace of God and the interior help of the Holy Spirit must
precede and assist, moving the heart and turning it to God, opening
the eyes of the mind and giving "joy and ease to everyone in
assenting to the truth and believing it" . To bring about an ever
deeper understanding of revelation the same Holy Spirit constantly
brings faith to completion by His gifts.
6. Through divine revelation, God chose to show forth and
communicate Himself and the eternal decisions of His will regarding
the salvation of men. That is to say, He chose to share with them
those divine treasures which totally transcend the understanding of
the human mind . As a sacred synod has affirmed, "God, the
beginning and end of all things, can be known with certainty from
created reality by the light of human reason" (See Rom. 1:20); but
it teaches that it is through His revelation "that those religious
truths which are by their nature accessible to human reason can be
known by all men with ease, with solid certitude and with no trace
of error, even in this present state of the human race" .
CHAPTER II - HANDING ON DIVINE REVELATION
7. In His gracious goodness, God has seen to it that what He had
revealed for the salvation of all nations would abide perpetually in
its full integrity and be handed on to all generations. Therefore
Christ the Lord in whom the full revelation of the supreme God is
brought to completion (see 2 Cor. 1:30; 3:15; 4:6), commissioned the
Apostles to preach to all men that Gospel which is the source of all
saving truth and moral teaching , and to impart to them heavenly
gifts. This Gospel had been promised in former times through the
prophets, and Christ Himself had fulfilled it and promulgated it
with His lips. This commission was faithfully fulfilled by the
Apostles who, by their oral preaching, by example, and by
observances handed on what they had received from the lips of
Christ, from living with Him, and from what He did, or what they had
learned through the prompting of the Holy Spirit. The commission was
fulfilled, too, by those Apostles and apostolic men who under the
inspiration of the same Holy Spirit committed the message of
salvation to writing .
But in order to keep the Gospel forever whole and alive within the
Church, the Apostles left bishops as their successors, "handing
over" to them "the authority to teach in their own place" . This
sacred tradition, therefore, and Sacred Scripture of both the Old
and New Testaments are like a mirror in which the pilgrim Church on
earth looks at God, from whom she has received everything, until she
is brought finally to see Him as He is, face to face (see 1 John
8. And so the apostolic preaching, which is expressed in a special
way in the inspired books, was to be preserved by an unending
succession of preachers until the end of time. Therefore the
Apostles, handing on what they themselves had received, warn the
faithful to hold fast to the traditions which they have learned
either by word of mouth or by letter (see 2 Thess. 2:15), and to
fight in defense of the faith handed on once and for all (see Jud.
3) . Now what was handed on by the Apostles includes everything
which contributes toward the holiness of life and increase in faith
of the People of God; and hands on to all generations all that she
herself is, all that she believes.
This tradition which comes from the Apostles develops in the Church
with the help of the Holy Spirit . For there is a growth in the
understanding of the realities and the words which have been made by
believers, who treasure these things in their hearts (see Luke 2:19,
51), through a penetrating understanding of the spiritual realities
which they experience, and through the preaching of those who have
received through episcopal succession the sure gift of truth. For as
the centuries succeed one another, the Church constantly moves
forward toward the fullness of divine truth until the words of God
reach their complete fulfilment in her.
The words of the holy Fathers witness to the presence of this living
tradition, whose wealth is poured into the practice and life of the
believing and praying Church. Through the same tradition the
Church's full canon of the sacred books is known, and the sacred
writings themselves are more profoundly understood and unceasingly
made active in her; and thus God, who spoke of old, uninterruptedly
converses with the bride of His beloved Son; and the Holy Spirit,
through whom the living voice of the Gospel resounds in the Church,
and through her, in the world, leads unto all truth those who
believe and makes the Word of Christ dwell abundantly in them (see
9. Hence there exists a close connection and communication between
sacred tradition and sacred Scripture. For both of them, flowing
from the same divine wellspring, in a certain way merge into a unity
and tend toward the same end. For sacred Scripture is the Word of
God inasmuch as it is consigned to writing under the inspiration of
the divine Spirit, while sacred tradition takes the Word of God
entrusted by Christ the Lord and the Holy Spirit to the Apostles,
and hands it on to their successors in its full purity, so that led
by the light of the Spirit of truth, they may in proclaiming it
preserve this Word of God faithfully, explain it, and make it more
widely known. Consequently it is not from sacred Scripture alone
that the Church draws her certainty about everything which has been
revealed. Therefore both sacred tradition and sacred Scripture are
to be accepted and venerated with the same sense of loyalty and
10. Sacred tradition and sacred Scripture form one sacred deposit of
the Word of God, committed to the Church. Holding fast to this
deposit the entire holy people united with their shepherds remain
always steadfast in the teaching of the Apostles, in the common
life, in the breaking of the bread and in prayers (see Acts 8:42,
Greek text), so that holding to, practicing and professing the
heritage of the faith, it becomes on the part of the bishops and
faithful a single common effort .
But the task of authentically interpreting the Word of God, whether
written or handed on , has been entrusted exclusively to the
living teaching office of the Church , whose authority is
exercised in the name of Jesus Christ. This teaching office is not
above the Word of God, but serves it, teaching only what has been
handed on, listening to it devoutly, guarding it scrupulously and
explaining it faithfully in accord with a divine commission and with
the help of the Holy Spirit; it draws from this one deposit of faith
everything which it presents for belief as divinely revealed.
It is clear, therefore, that sacred tradition, sacred Scripture and
the teaching authority of the Church, in accord with God's most wise
design, are so linked and joined together that one cannot stand
without the others, and that all together and each in its own way
under the action of the one Holy Spirit contribute effectively to
the salvation of souls.
CHAPTER III - SACRED SCRIPTURE, ITS INSPIRATION AND DIVINE
11. Those divinely revealed realities which are contained and
presented in sacred Scripture have been committed to writing under
the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. For holy mother Church, relying
on the belief of the Apostles (see John 20:31; 2 Tim. 3:16; 2 Peter
1:19-21; 3:15-16), holds that the books of both the Old and New
Testaments in their entirety, with all their parts, are sacred and
canonical because written under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit,
they have God as their author and have been handed on such to the
Church herself . In composing the sacred books, God chose men and
while employed by Him  they made use of their powers and
abilities, so that with Him acting in them and through them ,
they, as true authors, consigned to writing everything and only
those things which He wanted .
Therefore since everything asserted by the inspired authors or
sacred writers must be held to be asserted by the Holy Spirit, it
follows that the books of Scripture must be acknowledged as teaching
solidly, faithfully and without error that truth which God wanted
put into the sacred writings  for the sake of our salvation.
Therefore "all Scripture is divinely inspired and has its use for
teaching the truth and refuting error, for reformation of manners
and discipline in right living, so that the man who belongs to God
may be efficient and equipped for good work of every kind" (2 Tim.
3:16-17, Greek text).
12. However, since God speaks in sacred Scripture through men in
human fashion , the interpreter of sacred Scripture, in order to
see clearly what God wanted to communicate to us, should carefully
investigate what meaning the sacred writers really intended, and
what God wanted to manifest by means of their words.
To search out the intention of the sacred writers, attention should
be given, among other things, to "literary norms." For truth is set
forth and expressed differently in texts which are variously
historical, prophetic, poetic, or of other forms of discourse. The
interpreter must investigate what meaning the sacred writer intended
to express and actually expressed in particular circumstances by
using contemporary literary forms in accordance with the situation
of his own time and culture . For the correct understanding of
what the sacred author wanted to assert, due attention must be paid
to the customary and characteristic styles of feeling, speaking and
narrating which prevailed at the time of the sacred writer, and to
the patterns men normally employed at the period in their everyday
dealings with one another .
But, since holy Scripture must be read and interpreted in the same
spirit in which it was written , no less serious attention must
be given to the content and unity of the whole Scripture if the
meaning of the sacred texts is to be correctly worked out. The
living tradition of the whole Church must be taken into account
along with the harmony which exists between elements of the faith.
It is the task of exegetes to work according to these rules toward a
better understanding and explanation of the meaning of sacred
Scripture, so that through preparatory study the judgement of the
Church may mature. For all of what has been said about the way of
interpreting Scripture is subject finally to the judgement of the
Church, which carries out the divine commission and ministry of
guarding and interpreting the Word of God .
13. In sacred Scripture, therefore, while the truth and holiness of
God always remains intact, the marvellous "condescension" of eternal
wisdom is clearly shown, "that we may learn the gentle kindness of
God, which words cannot express, and how far He has gone in adopting
His language with thoughtful concern for our weak human nature"
. For the words of God, expressed in human language, have been
made like human discourse, just as the word of the eternal Father,
when He took Himself the flesh of human weakness, was in every way
made like men.
CHAPTER IV - THE OLD TESTAMENT
14. In carefully planning and preparing the salvation of the whole
human race the God of infinite love, by a special dispensation,
chose for Himself a people to whom He would entrust His promises.
First He entered into a covenant with Abraham (see Gen. 15:18) and,
through Moses, with the people of Israel (see Ex. 24:8). To this
people which He had acquired for Himself, He so manifested Himself
through words and deeds as the one true and living God that Israel
came to know by experience the ways of God with men. Then, too, when
God Himself spoke to them through the mouth of the prophets, Israel
daily gained a deeper and clearer understanding of His ways and made
them more widely known among the nations (see Ps. 21:29; 95:1-3; Is.
2:1-4; Jer. 3:17). The plan of salvation foretold by the sacred
authors, recounted and explained by them, is found as the true Word
of God in the books of the Old Testament: these books, therefore,
written under divine inspiration, so that by steadfastness and the
encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope" (Rom. 15:4).
15. The principal purpose to which the plan of the old covenant was
directed was to prepare for the coming of Christ, the redeemer of
all and of the messianic kingdom, to announce this coming by
prophecy (see Luke 24:44, John 5:39; 1 Peter 1:10), and to indicate
its meaning through various types (see 1 Cor. 10:11). Now the books
of the Old Testament, in accordance with the state of mankind before
the time of salvation established by Christ, reveal to all men the
knowledge of God and of man and the ways in which God, just and
merciful, deals with men. These books, though they also contain some
things which are incomplete and temporary, nevertheless show us true
divine pedagogy . These same books, then, give expression to a
lively sense of God, contain a store of sublime teachings about God,
sound wisdom about human life, and a wonderful treasury of prayers,
and in them the mystery of our salvation is present in a hidden way.
Christians should receive them with reverence.
16. God, the inspirer and author of both Testaments, wisely arranged
that the New Testament be hidden in the Old and that the Old be made
manifest in the New . For, though Christ established the new
covenant with His blood (see Luke 22:20; 1 Cor. 11:25), still the
books of the Old Testament with all their parts, caught up into the
meaning of the proclamation of the Gospel , acquire and show
forth their full meaning in the New Testament (see Matt. 5:17; Luke
24:27; Rom. 16:25-26; 2 Cor. 3:14-16) and in turn shed light on it
and explain it.
CHAPTER V - THE NEW TESTAMENT
17. Word of God, which is the power of God for the salvation of all
who believe (see Rom. 1:16), is set forth and shows its power in a
most excellent way in the writings of the New Testament. For when
the fullness of time arrived (see Gal. 4:4), the Word was made flesh
and dwelt among us in His fullness of graces and truth (see John
1:14). Christ established the Kingdom of God on earth, manifested
His Father and Himself by deeds and words, and completed His work by
His death, resurrection and glorious Ascension and by the sending of
the Holy Spirit. Having been lifted up from the earth, He draws all
men to Himself (see John 12:32, Greek text), He who alone has the
words of eternal life (see John 6:68). This mystery had not been
manifested to other generations as it was now revealed to His holy
Apostles and prophets in the Holy Spirit (see Eph. 3:4-6, Greek
text), so that they might preach the Gospel, stir up faith in Jesus,
Christ and Lord, and gather together the Church. Now the writings of
the New Testament stand as a perpetual and divine witness to these
18. It is common knowledge that among all the Scriptures, even those
of the New Testament, the Gospels have a special preeminence, and
rightly so, for they are the principal witness for the life and
teaching of the Incarnate Word, our Saviour.
The Church has always and everywhere held and continues to hold that
the four Gospels are of apostolic origin. For what the Apostles
preached in fulfilment of the commission of Christ, afterwards they
themselves and apostolic men, under the inspiration of the divine
Spirit, handed on to us in writing: the foundation of the faith,
namely, the fourfold Gospel, according to Matthew, Mark, Luke and
19. Holy Mother Church has firmly and with absolute constancy held,
and continues to hold, that the four Gospels just named, whose
historical character the Church unhesitatingly asserts, faithfully
hand on what Jesus Christ, while living among men, really did and
taught for their eternal salvation until the day He was taken up
into heaven (see Acts 1:1-2). Indeed, after the Ascension of the
Lord the Apostles handed on to their hearers what He had said and
done. This they did with that clearer understanding which they
enjoyed  after they had been instructed by the glorious events of
Christ's life and taught by the light of the Spirit of truth .
The sacred authors wrote four Gospels, selecting some things from
the many which had bee handed on by word of mouth or in writing,
reducing some of them to a synthesis, explaining some things in view
of the situation of their churches, and preserving the form of
proclamation but always in such fashion that they told us the honest
truth about Jesus . For their intention in writing was that
either from their own memory and recollections, or from the witness
of those who "themselves from the beginning were eye-witnesses and
ministers of the Word" we might know "the truth" concerning those
matters about which we have been instructed (see Luke 1:2-4).
20. Besides the four Gospels, the canon of the New Testament also
contains the epistles of St. Paul and other apostolic writings,
composed under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, by which
according to the wise plan of God, those matters which concern
Christ the Lord are confirmed, His true teaching is more and more
preached, the story is told of the beginnings of the Church and its
marvellous growth, and its glorious fulfilment is foretold.
For the Lord Jesus was with His Apostles as He had promised (see
Matt. 28:2)) and sent them the advocate Spirit who would lead them
into the fullness of truth (see John 16:13).
CHAPTER VI - SACRED SCRIPTURE IN THE LIFE OF THE CHURCH
21. The Church has always venerated the Scriptures just as she
venerates the body of the Lord, since, especially in sacred liturgy,
she unceasingly receives and offers to the faithful the bread of
life from the table both of God's Word and of Christ's Body. She has
always maintained them, and continues to do so, together with sacred
tradition, as the supreme rule of faith, since, as inspired by God
and committed once and for all to writing, they impart the Word of
God Himself without change, and make the voice of the Holy Spirit
resound in the words of the prophets and Apostles. Therefore, like
the Christian religion itself, all the preaching of the Church must
be nourished and regulated by sacred Scripture. For in the sacred
books, the Father who is in heaven meets His children with great
love and speaks with them; and the force and power in the word of
God is so great that it stands as the support and energy of the
Church, the strength of faith for her sons, the food of the soul,
the pure and everlasting source of spiritual life. Consequently
these words are perfectly applicable to sacred Scripture: "For the
word of God is living and active" (Heb. 4:12) and "it has power to
build you up and give you your heritage among all those who are
sanctified" (Acts 20:32; see 1 Thess. 2:13).
22. Easy access to sacred Scripture should be provided for all the
Christian faithful. That is why the Church from the very beginning
accepted as her own that very ancient Greek translation of the Old
Testament which is called the Septuagint; and she has always given a
place of honour to other Eastern translations and Latin ones,
especially the Latin translation known as the Vulgate. But since the
Word of God should be accessible at all times, the Church by her
authority and with maternal concern sees to it that suitable and
correct translations are made into different languages, especially
from the original texts of the sacred books. And should the
opportunity arise and the Church authorities approve, if these
translations are produced in cooperation with the separated brethren
as well, all Christians will be able to use them.
23. The bride of the Incarnate Word, the Church taught by the Holy
Spirit, is concerned to move ahead toward a deeper understanding of
the sacred Scriptures so that she may increasingly feed her sons
with the divine words. Therefore, she also encourages the study of
the holy Fathers of both East and West and of the sacred liturgies.
Catholic exegetes then and other students of sacred theology,
working diligently together and using appropriate means, should
devote their energies, under the watchful care of the sacred
teaching office of the Church, to an exploration and exposition of
the divine writings. This should be so done that as many ministers
of the divine word as possible will be able effectively to provide
nourishment of the Scriptures for the People of God, to enlighten
their minds , strengthen their wills and set men's hearts on fire
with the love of God . The sacred Synod encourages the sons of
the Church and Biblical scholars to continue energetically,
following the mind of the Church, with the work they have so well
begun, with a constant renewal of vigour .
24. Sacred theology rests on the written Word of God, together with
sacred tradition, as its primary and perpetual foundation. By
scrutinizing in the light of faith all truth stored up in the
mystery of Christ, theology is most powerfully strengthened and
constantly rejuvenated by that Word. For the sacred Scriptures
contain the Word of God and since they are inspired really are the
Word of God; and so the study of the sacred page is, as it were, the
soul of sacred theology . By the same word of Scripture the
ministry of the Word also, that is, pastoral preaching, catechetics
and all Christian instruction, in which the liturgical homily must
hold the foremost place, is nourished in a healthy way and
flourishes in a holy way.
25. Therefore, all the clergy must hold fast to the sacred
Scriptures through diligent sacred reading and careful study,
especially the priests of Christ and others, such as deacons and
catechists whoa re legitimately active in the ministry of the Word.
This is to be done so that none of them will become "an empty
preacher of the word of God outwardly, who is not a listener to it
inwardly"  since they must share the abundant wealth of the
divine Word with the faithful committed to them, especially in the
sacred liturgy. The sacred Synod also earnestly and especially urges
all the Christian faithful, especially Religious, to learn by
frequent reading of the divine Scriptures the "excellent knowledge
of Jesus Christ" (Phil. 3:8). "For ignorance of the Scriptures is
ignorance of Christ" . Therefore, they should gladly put
themselves in touch with the sacred text itself, whether it be
through the liturgy, rich in the divine Word or through devotional
reading, or through instructions suitable for the purpose and other
aids which, in our time with approval and active support of the
shepherds of the Church, are commendably spread everywhere. And let
them remember that prayer should accompany the reading of sacred
Scripture, so that God and man may talk together; for "we speak to
Him when we pray; we hear Him when we read the divine saying" .
It devolves on sacred bishops "who have the apostolic teaching" 
to give the faithful entrusted to them suitable instruction in the
right use of the divine books, especially the New Testament and
above all the Gospels. This can be done through translations of the
sacred texts, which are to be provided with the necessary and really
adequate explanations so that the children of the Church may safely
and profitably become conversant with the sacred Scriptures and be
penetrated with their spirit.
Furthermore, editions of the sacred Scriptures, provided with
suitable footnotes, should be prepared also for the sue of non-
Christians and adapted to their situation. Both pastors of souls and
Christians generally should see to the wide distribution of these in
one way or another.
26. In this way, therefore, through the reading and study of the
sacred books "the word of God may spread rapidly and be glorified"
(2 Thess. 3;1) and the treasure of revelation, entrusted to the
Church, may more and more fill the hearts of men. Just as the life
of the Church is strengthened through more frequent celebration of
the Eucharistic mystery, similarly we may hope for a new stimulus
for the life of the Spirit from a growing reverence for the word of
God, which "lasts forever" (Is. 40:8; see 1 Peter 1:23-25).
The entire text and all the individual elements which have been set
forth in this Constitution have pleased the Fathers. And by the
Apostolic power conferred on us by Christ, we, together with the
Venerable Fathers, in the Holy Spirit, approve, decree and enact
them; and we order that what has been thus enacted in Council be
promulgated, to the glory of God.
Rome, at St. Peter's 18 November, 1965.
I, PAUL, Bishop of the Catholic Church
There follow the signatures of the Fathers.
 Cf. St. Augustine, DE CATECHIZANDIS RUDIBUS, C.IV, 8: PL. 40,316.
 Cf. Mt. 11:27; Jn. 1:14 and 17; 14:6; 17:1-3; 2 Cor. 3:16 and 4:6;
 EPISTLE TO DIOGNETUS, c. VII, 4: Funk, APOSTOLIC FATHERS, I, p. 403.
 First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC FAITH,
Chap. 3, "On Faith:" Denzinger 1789 (3008).
 Second Council of Orange, Canon 7: Denzinger 180 (377); First
Vatican Council, loc. cit.: Denzinger 1791 (3010).
 First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC FAITH,
Chap. 2, "On Revelation:" Denzinger 1786 (3005).
 Ibid: Denzinger 1785 and 1786 (3004 and 3005).
 Cf. Matt. 28:19-20, and Mark 16:15; Council of Trent, session IV,
DECREE ON SCRIPTURAL SANONS: Denzinger 783 (1501).
 Cf. Council of Trent, loc. cit.; First Vatican Council, session III,
DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC FAITH, Chap. 2, "On Revelation:"
Denzinger 1787 (3006).
 St. Irenaeus, AGAINST HERETICS III, 3, 1: PG 7, 848; Harvey, 2, p.
 Cf. Second Council of Nicea: Denzinger 303 (602); Fourch Council of
Constance, session X, Canon 1: Denzinger 336 (650-652).
 Cf. First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC
FAITH, Chap. 4, "On Faith and Reason:" Denzinger 1800 (3020).
 Cf. Council of Trent, session IV, loc. cit.: Denzinger 783 (1501).
 Cf. Pius XII, apostolic constitution, MUNIFICENTISSIMUS DEUS, Nov.
1, 1950: AAS 42 (1950) p. 756; Collected Writings of St. Cyprian, Letter
66, 8: Hartel, III B, p. 733: "The Church [is] people united with the
priest and the pastor together with his flock."
 Cf. First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC
FAITH, Chap. 3 "On Faith:" Denzinger 1792 (3011).
 Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter HUMANI GENERIS, Aug. 12, 1950: AAS
42 (1950) pp. 568-569: Denzinger 2314 (3886).
 Cf. First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC
FAITH, Chap. 3 "On Revelation:" Denzinger 1787 (3006); Biblical
Commission, DECREE of June 18, 1915: Denzinger 2180 (3629): EB 420; Holy
Office, EPISTLE of Dec. 22, 1923: EB 499.
 Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter DIVINO AFFLANTE SPIRITU, Sept. 30,
1943: AAS 35 (1943) p. 314; Enchiridion Biblic. (EB) 556.
 "In" and "for" man: cf. Heb 1:1 and 4:7; ("in"): 2 Sm. 23:2; Mt.
1:22 and various places; ("for"): First Vatican Council, SCHEMA ON
CATHOLIC DOCTRINE, note 9: Coll. Lac. VII, 522.
 Leo XII, Encyclical PROVIDENTISSIMUS DEUS, Nov. 18, 1893: Denzinger
1952 (3293): EB 125.
 Cf. St. Augustine, GEN. AD LITT. 2, 9, 20: PL 34, 270-271; Epistle
82,3: PL 33, 277: CSEL 34,2, p. 354; St. Thomas, "On Truth", Q.12, A.2,
C; Council of Trent, session IV, SCRIPTURAL CANONS: Denzinger 783
(1501); Leo XIII, Encyclical Letter PROVIDENTISSIMUS DEUS: EB 121, 124;
Pius XII, Encyclical Letter DIVINO AFFLANTE SPIRITU: EB 539.
 St. Augustine, CITY OF GOD, XVII,6,2: PL 41, 537: CSEL XL, 2, 228.
 St. Augustine, ON CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE III, 18, 26: PL 34, 75-76.
 Pius XII, Loc. cit.: Denzinger 2294 (3829-3830): EB 557-562.
 Cf. Benedict XV, Encyclical Letter SPIRITUS PARACLITUS, Sept. 15,
1920: EB 469. St. Jerome, "In Galacians" 5, 19-20: PL 26, 417 A.
 Cf. First Vatican Council, DOGMATIC CONSTITUTION ON THE CATHOLIC
FAITH, Chapter 2, "On Revelation;" Denzinger 1788 (3007).
 St. John Chrysostom IN GENESIS 3, 8 (Homily 17, 1): PG 53, 134;
"Attemperatio" [in English "Suitable adjustment"] in Greek
 Pius XI, Encyclical Epistle MIT BRENNENDER SORGE, March 14, 1937:
AAS 29 (1937) p. 51.
 St. Augustine, QUEST IN HEPT. 2, 73: PL 34, 623.
 St. Irenaeus AGAINST HERETICS III, 21, 3: PG 7, 950: (Same as 25, 1:
Harvey 2, p. 115). St Cyril of Jerusalem, CATECH. 4, 35: PG 33, 497.
Theodore of Mopsuestia, IN Soph. 1, 4-6: PG 66, 452D-453A.
 Cf. St. Irenaeus, AGAINST HERETICS, III, 11, 8: PG 7, 885; Sagnard
Edition, p. 194.
[Due to the necessities of translation, footnote 2 follows footnote 3 in
the text of Article 19]
 Cf. John 14:26; 16:13.
 John 2:22; 12:16; Cf. 14:26; 16:12-13; 7:39.
 Cf. instruction HOLY MOTHER CHURCH edited by Pontifical Consilium
for Promotion of Bible Studies: AAS 56 (1964) p. 715.
 Cf. Pius XII, Encyclical Letter DIVINO AFFLANTE SPIRITU: EB 551,
553, 567; Pontifical Biblical Commission, INSTRUCTION ON PROPER TEACHING
OF SACRED SCRIPTURE IN SEMINARIES AND RELIGIOUS COLLEGES, May 13, 1950:
AAS (1950) pp. 495-505.
 Cf. Pius XII, ibid: EB 569.
 Cf. Leo XII, Encyclical Letter PROVIDENTISSIMUS DEUS: EB 114;
Benedict XV, Encyclical Letter SPIRITUS PARACLITUS: EB 483.
 St. Augustine, SERMONS, 179, 1: PL 38, 966.
 St. Jerome COMMENTARY ON ISAIAH, Prol: PL 24, 17; Cf. BENEDICT XV,
Encyclical Letter SPIRITUS PARACLITUS: EB 475-480; Pius XII, Encyclical
Letter DIVINO AFFLANTE SPIRITU: EB 544.
 St. Ambrose, ON THE DUTIES OF MINISTERS I< 20, 88: PL 16, 50.
 St. Irenaeus, AGAINST HERETICS IV, 32, 1: PG 7, 1071; (same as 49,
2) Harvey, 2, p. 255.